• May 3, 2013
  • 211

Maria Tomaszewska-Nałęcz: You have to love Homeland

© Kurier Wilenski

The Constitution of May 3, in the heart of every Pole, starting with those who never left their native Polish sides of the Republic and ending with those who share the Homeland curtain thousands of kilometers of borders, raises a feeling of pride. Celebrating the Feast of the 3rd of May, it is worth remembering that the Constitution was the result of courageous work, dedicated to Polish people. It is worth recalling the history of the descendants of Stanislaw Malachowski, one of the authors of the Constitution of May 3. Although the fate of Malachowski, who, after the partition of the Polish became citizens of the Russian Empire, were full of dramatic moments as true Poles were always faithful to the ideals of: God, Honor, Home. We’re talking with people who are born and live in Moscow, Maria Tomaszewska-adviser of the famous noble family Malachowski.

From the time when Count Stanislaw Malachowski made ​​his signature to the Constitution of May 3, passes 222 years. The family archives preserved in the memories of Stanislaus, called by his contemporaries, Aristides?

Very few survived … shreds of memories. Time, a red revolution and Stalinist repression struck hard family, and archive the resulting gap. But fortunately not all gone. We managed to save messages on the history of the family in the second half of the nineteenth century. Great-grandfather Sigmund Adam adviser-Małachowski settled in Vitebsk province. Adolf Adam, the elder son got into the Tsar’s Academy of Fine Arts in St. Petersburg, was an architect and a precursor to balloon flights. Summer Theatre building, which was designed and built Astrakhan Adam Adolf survived almost 100 years. In 1976, a fire destroyed it, unfortunately. Bronislaw, the younger son, he studied at the Institute of Technology.

Newspapers St. Petersburg and Moscow with delight once wrote about the “Hounds Bronislaw Małachowskiego”.

Contemporary journalists hailed the Hounds locomotive, designed by my great-grandfather Bronislaw. As I said, he studied at the Technological Institute, then became an engineer and head of the department, which in plants Sormowa dealt with the development and construction of new locomotives. Locomotive was moving at an incredible speed at the time: up to 125 kilometers per hour. It is because of “Hounds Małachowskiego” trip Moscow – Saint-Petersburg lasted only six hours. Just a few years back on the railroad connecting Moscow and St. Petersburg appeared a new generation of engines that are able to cover the route in 4 hours. Soon after the revolution, great-grandfather moved from Niżniego Novgorod to Moscow, where he was Head of State of the steam locomotives built technical plants. At the same time he taught at the Moscow University of Technology.

How to get the ball rolling fate of a pole, Bronislaw engineer and inventor after the revolution?

From what I know, Bronislaw was unduly accused of activities against the Soviet Union, then convicted and imprisoned on Solovki. After leaving the prison authorities banned his return to Leningrad. Great-grandfather died in 1934. His son, my grandfather, who also was named Bronislaw (known architect and author of the satirical drawings) in 1937 was accused of spying for the Polish and shot.

Or, maybe he spied ?

I am sure that the spies grandfather is not amused. He was, as I said, an architect, a painter. He was a close friend of the famous Russian writer Alexei Tolstoy and the first illustrator of the children’s book “The Golden Key”. Sometime after that, when my grandfather was shot in the subsequent editions of his books were illustrations, and then the name disappeared, and in later editions replaced with drawings of other artists.

Grandma, however, survived?

Yes, survived. But at what cost … repression, harassment. Wife of “enemy of the people” and even on top of Polish spy, at that time it was almost a judgment of conviction of human loneliness and humiliation.

So what?

Only sister married my grandmother famous painter Altmann, an employee of the renowned Mariinsky Theatre in Leningrad, he pleaded with authorities to Grandma allowed to return from exile. During the Second World War, grandmother of the children (my mother and uncle) spent in Perm. In 1948, my grandmother was arrested, thrown into prison. Despite all efforts failed to bring it with him … She died in his cell. Brought up by my mother and her brother took her grandmother’s sister Maria, née Ternawcewa. However, my father’s family – Tomaszewscy were in the besieged Leningrad by the Germans.

The fact that civilians had to endure during the battle of Leningrad been said to be half-hearted …

Tomaszewscy only survived the siege by almost unbelievable circumstances that have made ​​in their favor. Prior to the siege of the city by German troops were in the Crimea. Fleeing blitzkriegiem, Ukraine sent via several small parcels of coffee, flour and sugar to Leningrad. Packets arrived in the city shortly before the siege. Grandma shared their contents into tiny portions, a kind of supplement to the meager rations they received the inhabitants of Leningrad. Grandparents even able to help poet Anna Akhmatova with food, which are good friends. However, I remember their stories that his grandfather Boris Tomaszewski (known philologist) narrowly escaped death from hunger and exhaustion. I also remember them full of fear and horror stories as to my aunt, and was a woman of a fair stature, decorated hunting. Today, as in Soviet times, this is rather not say, but it is the secret of pulcinelli that in the besieged Leningrad often occurred to cannibalism.

Parents?

My mother graduated from the Academy of Russian Ballet. A. Vaganova, then for a while she danced in the Mikhailovsky Theatre in Leningrad. Then mom and dad moved to Moscow. In 1952, in Moscow, gave birth to a daughter, that’s me, Maria Tomaszewska. In Moscow, Russian Academy of mom ends Performing Arts and started working as a lecturer at the Moscow Academy of Choreography. At the time of Khrushchev’s mother after the time-consuming efforts to rehabilitate the parents managed to convince the authorities about their case. Dad taught at the School of Literature. He often visited in Italy, he was a member of the Academy of Fine Arts in Florence.

Polish aristocrats in Soviet Russia were discriminated against?

Discrimination on the grounds that my ancestors come from Polish and belonged to the Polish aristocracy, he never met. I admit, however, that we did not talk about our origins too loud, but all close friends and friends knew and know about our ancestors. I know, however, that participation in the uprising father Andrzejewskiej Catherine, wife of Bronislaw, the inventor of this locomotive – “Hounds” for participation in one of the uprisings was forced to change the name. With Andrzejewski become Andrejewym.

In our time, people in the rape trace like the noble roots and seek to recover the title and estates.

Do not pay too much attention to all titles. Anyway, I’m Malachowska on the distaff side, or his mother, and from what I heard they were still some servants of my father’s side. Finally, we do not have documents that could confirm our nobility, and for me  it is a waste of time and effort that I would have to spend on their quest.

I know that the descendants Malachowskis also settled in Sweden …

Małachowscy in Sweden are, unfortunately, hardly a history, interesting, adventurous, but history. Catherine Andrzejewska, then Małachowska her husband Bronislaw tried to escape from the red revolution. In winter, hidden under the straw on the car farmer smuggled it through the frost chained Gulf of Finland. Then went to Germany, soon joined her her son Leo and his wife. Soon the children were born Adelaide and George.  Existed almost poverty, however, after some time, hard working, they were able to collect some money. But they had to give up and the property. The power of the Nazis came. Małachowscy tried to save the fact that the possess a noble origin, added his name to the target particle “von”. But the earth was burning in them literally under their feet, dropped everything and went to Sweden to Stockholm, where she lived for a long time sister Catherine – Adelaide Andrzejewska-Skiłłądź. Well-known opera singer, prima donna opera in Stockholm took in refugees from Berlin under his wing. Malachowskis  faith transformed for the better. Leo, as a good cartoonist found work in several newspapers, his son George was a businessman (he had no children, and died at the age of 65 years). However, Leo’s daughter, Adelaide, worked as a stewardess on a Swedish airline SAS. She married an American, currently living in the United States.

And you?

I live in Moscow, once I graduated from philological faculty at Moscow State University. I teach Latin, Greek and ancient literature, I am the author of several articles about ancient. Husband George Adamov is a writer, the daughter of Olga works as a translator.

Poland and Russia, these countries combined and divided into as many as perhaps no other in the world?

Polish in Russia are only interested politicians, businessmen who do business with the Poles and the people who want to spend their holiday. Everyone else … I think not even know that this country exists, which is a pity!

German writer Bertold Brecht mouthed their heroes once said: “The unhappy country that needs heroes” …

I agree with Brechtem, but you have to be able to actually understand what is patriotism. When politicians and  chauvinists teared loud: we are the best, and the rest are slime, for me evokes a feeling of disgust. Something totally different is when a man honestly loves his country, his people.

I’ve never been tempted to take the train or a plane and come to Poland?

It was and is. This trip is my dream. Moreover daughter was already in Poland. Maybe one day I’ll go and I …

PROFILE OF STANISLAUS Małachowskiego

Count Stanislaw Malachowski Aristocratic (born August 24, 1736 in Horse, d. Dec. 29, 1809 in Warsaw) – Polish politician, MP, Speaker of the Confederation of the Crown of the Polish Kingdom and the Speaker of the Four in 1788, Secretary of the Crown in the years 1780-1792, Lord High Steward of the Crown in 1779, starost of wawolnicki, starost sadzecki in the years 1755-1784. He was a Member of Parliament in Krakow 1758. Member of Parliament Convocation 1764 which demanded the government clarify the scope and limitations of the hetman Liberum Veto. In 1764, he signed the election of Stanisław August Poniatowski. Participant Confederation of Radom in 1767. He was a member of Parliament from the 1766 years of Krakow. In 1774 was the Speaker of the Crown Court, which restored the old efficiency and honesty, earning the name Aristides in modern Polish. In the years 1776-1780 Apothecary Permanent Council. In 1782 it was made a Knight of the Order of Saint Stanislaus. In the same year he was awarded the Order of the White Eagle. Member of the Four-Year Sejm Sandomierz in 1788, elected its Speaker, Parliament moved the formation of a confederation, and was Speaker of the Confederation of the crown. As a member of the Patriotic Party, was together with Ignacy Potocki and Hugo Kollataj one of the main founders of the Constitution of May 3. He lived in the Czapski-Raczynski (at the Krakow suburb, today the Academy of Fine Arts), where the secret meetings It edited the text of the law, he also led the company’s adoption of the parliamentary session, May 3, 1791. He was one of the signatories of the Constitution of May 3.

Source: http://kurierwilenski.lt/2013/05/03/maria-tomaszewska-nalecz-ojczyzne-trzeba-kochac/

Tłumaczenie by Katarzyna Dąbrowska w ramach praktyk w Europejskiej Fundacji Praw Człowieka, www.efhr.eu. Translated by by Katarzyna Dąbrowska within the framework of a traineeship programme of the European Foundation of Human Rights, www.efhr.eu. 

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